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Geologic Evolution

Geologic Evolution
From 650 MYA to present

(Click to stop/start animation)


~ 650 mya

The beginnings of geological evolution: the pre-Cambrian era, long before the advent of killies, and the majority of life on earth. An explosion (Cambrian seas) of water plants and marine animals. In terms of the variety of ancestral populations we still can identify living now.


~ 270 mya

Triassic: the emergence of the dinosaurs, mammals and birds have not appeared yet.



Opening of Pangea, separation of the continents and the opening of the Atlantic that the beginning was a shallow sea, very salty, almost a great salt lake and evolved into a shallow sea less salty, with marshy areas with formation of the coast of Brazil and river deltas, evolving systems dunes and sandbanks until we have .... this time subsequent to the inland seas that killis coastal scattered along the coast from the north and river deltas.



To better understand the region whence the killis, The Tethys Sea and the subsequent evolution of that with the opening of the continents, watch how the regions connected to this sea are those that has killis, those of Africa migrated from east to west to inland seas and south america north south by inland seas


10,000 years ago

World map to 10,000 years ago, the period of greatest expansion killis but tb period of glaciations, watch how the ice caps are going up north to the U.S. and Argentina. Killis spreading in the equatorial region.


Imagine that before (the separation of the continents), part of the Sahara region was a sea that connected east to west, with the formation of the continent in place of this sea, for uplift, formed a tangle of basins hidrografias exactly the surroundings .. hj ... and coincidentally where most find the killifish in Africa, ie, they migrated across the sea shallow but always tending to internalize basins p does not compete with the big fish, and when did this tangle of rivers they swam back.

Today the continent is breaking in two, called the African rift, which is aligned with a valley in eastern Africa, where they line the Great Lakes, these lakes will join in the future and will form a sea shallow, as it was the opening of the atlantic.

These characteristics have already brackish lakes and lower bound the dimension of the sea, so fish have such different intermediate between marine and freshwater. The great lakes have high alkalinity.


And to understand how this migrated from northern south america so until the mid-west and south

sediments and fossils vain parana basin from Santa Catarina to Mato Grosso, proving the connection


Map after separation of the continents showing the inland seas, the look of south america north and south of p africa east west p.

Fernando Gonçalves Dos Santos when the continents were still not separated as hj, possessed many inland seas that faded with the rise of the Andes (increase) in south america and the Appalachian and Rocky in north america


60 to 1 MYA

Stop understand the inland sea of the South American Andes and rising. Of p tb perfectly understand the distribution of killishere is already reducing the large southern North Sea, is already beginning to emerge when the andes and closing the connection thing going north south by sea, and is only for hydrographic basins

Before Andes had rivers that ran Brazil's central Pacific ocean po rs


Last real rs, explaining how did the Andes and the Rockies, the American continents pressing the pacific ocean sinking beneath these, warm and rise as magmatic rocks forming the mountains .... this process began with the opening of the continents.

~ 1.6MYA

A series of Ice Ages persists with intermittent interglacial warming periods.

  • 100,000 Earliest modern human Homo sapiens
  • 50,000 Neanderthals in La Ferrassie, France
  • 25,000 Interglacial retreat of ice, cave paintings in Lascaeux, France and Altimira, Spain (18,000 years ago)
  • 20,000 Ice Age (Würm or Wisconsin) resumes with ice sheets in Britain and Scandinavia and equivalent ice in New England and the Great Lakes.
  • 15,000 Interglacial Warming resumes

Pleistocene extinction: Loss of many large mammal species (mastodons, mammoths, giant ground sloth, saber tooth tigers and so on.

~ 10,000 years ago.

  • 10,000 Ice caps are shrinking causing sea levels to rise rapidly over 140 feet.
  • 9,000 Pronounced warming of 3 to 5 degrees Celsius, worldwide.
  • 8,000 domestication of cereal grains in the Mid-East, rice in south Asia.
  • 7,000 Cities at Jericho, Israel and Catal Hüyuk, Anatolia.

(Click to enlarge)

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Richard J. Sexton